Senin, 16 Januari 2012

Fluid and Enzyme of Digestive Track

Try to give you more information about fluid or enzyme that we can find at our digestive organs. Maybe it is not much, but i hope that this article can help you to understand better about human digestive system.

Oral Cavity Secretions
  • Serous (watery) saliva: moistens food and mucous membrane; lysozyme kills bacteria
  • Salivary amylase: starch digestion (conversion to maltose and isomaltose)
  • Mucus: lubricates food; protects gastrointestinal tract from digestion by enzymes
  • Lingual lipase: digests a small amount (<10%) of lipids
Esophagus Secretions
  • Mucus:  lubricates the esophagus; protects the esophagus lining from abrasion and allows food to move more smoothly through the esophagus
 Gastric Secretions
  • Hydrochloric acid: decreases stomach pH to activate pepsinogen
  • Pepsinogen: pepsin, the active form of pepsinogen, digests protein into smaller peptide chains
  • Mucus: protects stomach lining from digestion
  • Gastric amylase and gelatinase: digest a minor amount of carbohydrates
  • Gastric lipase: digests a minor amount of lipid
Liver Secretions
  • Bile (consist of Sodium glycocholate, Sodium taurocholate, Cholesterol, Biliverdin, Bilirubin, Mucus, Fat, & Lecithin): Bile salts emulsify fats, making them available to intestinal lipases; help make end products soluble and available for absorption by the intestinal mucosa; aid peristalsis. Many of the other bile contents are waste products transported to the intestine for disposal.
Pancreas Secretions
  • Trypsin: digests proteins (breaks polypeptide chains at arginine or lysine residues)
  • Chymotrypsin: digests proteins (cleaves carboxyl links of hydrophobic amino acids)
  • Carboxypeptidase: digests proteins (removes amino acids from the carboxyl end of peptide chains)
  • Pancreatic amylase: digests carbohydrates (hydrolyzes starches and glycogen to form maltose and isomaltose)
  • Pancreatic lipase: digests fat (breaks down lipids into monoglycerides and free fatty acids)
  • Ribonuclease: digests ribonucleic acid
  • Deoxyribonuclease: digests deoxyribonucleic acid (hydrolyzes phosphodiester bonds)
  • Cholesterol esterase: hydrolyzes cholesterol esters to form cholesterol and free fatty acids
  • Bicarbonate ions: provides appropriate pH for pancreatic enzymes
Small Intestine Secretions
  • Mucus : Protects duodenum from stomach acid, gastric enzymes, and intestinal enzymes; provides adhesion for fecal matter; protects intestinal wall from bacterial action and acid produced in the feces
  • Aminopeptidase: splits polypeptides into amino acids (from amino end of chain)
  • Peptidase: splits amino acids from polypeptides
  • Enterokinase: activates trypsin from trypsinogeh
  • Amylase: digests carbohydrates
  • Sucrase: splits sucrose into glucose and fructose
  • Maltase: splits maltose into two glucose molecules
  • Isomaltase: splits isomaltose into two glucose molecules
  • Lactase : splits lactose into glucose and galactose
  • Lipase: splits fats into monoglycerides and fatty acids

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